1. Reasonable positioning, scientific planning
In the process of building a professional laboratory, the “construction” part is essential. It includes the positioning and planning of the laboratory, which is the foundation and soul of the entire laboratory construction. Laboratory planning includes two aspects: one is laboratory building planning, and the other is laboratory process planning. The laboratory building plan includes the appearance, style, height, and layout of the building. Before the construction of the laboratory, the process of investigating the needs of the laboratory is actually to determine the process of planning the entire laboratory for 3 to 5 years. Therefore, a large amount of preliminary research work is required. It is necessary to clarify its own needs and future development direction, and to extensively examine the established laboratories of relevant units and learn their experiences and lessons.
In addition, it should be fully recognized from the concept that professional laboratory construction is a complex system engineering, which is the construction of the working environment and the way the environment is created, rather than a simple combination of instruments and furniture.
2, laboratory design should be prior to civil engineering design
"Construction" should precede "construction", and only "construction" is clear before it can begin to "build." It is the process of implementing abstract ideas through professional means, including laboratory design, installation, commissioning, maintenance and upgrade.
At present, there is no relevant building code for the construction of laboratories in China. Therefore, many laboratories in the civil engineering design stage have not fully considered the special requirements of the laboratory for construction. The correct laboratory construction process is to first carry out the laboratory process design, and then carry out the laboratory civil design under the premise of meeting the laboratory process requirements. This requires the construction unit to consult the professional experimental design party, and timely intervention in the civil design stage of the project. If possible, it is best to bring civil engineers to visit other units' laboratories to deepen their understanding.
Typical civil engineering design issues include:
(1) The wind shaft is not designed, or the position, size and quantity of the wind shaft cannot meet the requirements;
(2) The cylinder chamber is not considered, and only the gas cylinder room for fire protection is designed;
(3) The overall planning of the laboratory is not carried out, and the division is too simple or unreasonable;
(4) The use of the instrument is not considered;
(5) Special room functions, such as constant temperature and humidity chambers, are not considered;
(6) The net level is too low, affecting the layout of the pipeline, and the space after renovation is low.
3, the design of the laboratory layout
The layout of the laboratory is the basis of the laboratory design. Only the layout planning according to the functional partition and workflow requirements can ensure the subsequent professional design of water, electricity and wind. It can be said that the whole body is moving. Therefore, the layout design phase should consider the work and development needs as much as possible, rationally configure the space, and optimize the integration as much as possible. In addition to the optimization of the layout and the design of the position of the equipment, it should also fully consider whether the direction of the flow of people and the flow of goods meets the requirements of the work. For example, in order to avoid frequent running of the experimenter, the pre-processing room should be on the same floor as the instrument room; the gas cylinder room should be on the same floor as the gas chromatograph, GC/MS, etc.; try to maximize the single-layer area to avoid There are too many floors, and each floor should be equipped with a washing room and a sample room to make full use of the space; the biosafety room should reasonably arrange clean areas, semi-clean areas, and contaminated areas to avoid cross-contamination.
4. Laboratory power distribution system
The distribution system of the laboratory is designed according to the specific requirements of the experimental instruments and equipment, and is designed by a large number of professional designers. It is very different from ordinary buildings. Because the requirements of the circuit equipment of the laboratory equipment are more complicated, it is not usually considered as long as the requirements of the maximum voltage and the maximum power are met. In fact, there are many instruments and equipment that have special requirements for the circuit (such as electrostatic grounding, power failure protection, equipotential bonding, etc.). The design of the power distribution system should not only consider the existing equipment and equipment, but also consider the development plan of the laboratory for several years, fully consider the reservation problems of the power distribution system and the future circuit maintenance. In order to ensure reliable power supply, the uninterruptible power supply or dual-line design should also be considered. The capacity of the uninterruptible power supply should meet the actual needs and ensure a certain amplable interval to meet future development needs.
In addition, for certain special areas, such as cylinders, explosion-proof electrical components should be used to ensure no safety hazards. The socket on the wall should fully consider the requirements. For example, the sample room should be reserved for the socket of the refrigerator, the socket of the pre-treatment room should be prepared for the centrifuge, the socket of the automatic shoe cover machine should be reserved at the door, and some sockets should be considered on both sides of the corridor. .
5, laboratory air conditioning system
The air conditioning system not only controls the temperature and humidity of the laboratory, but also cooperates with the laboratory ventilation system to truly ensure the temperature and humidity of the laboratory and the pressure difference between the rooms, so that personnel and precision instruments have a good working environment. If the central building is located in the entire building where the laboratory is located, it must be able to perform modular management in sub-regional and time-sharing to avoid the impact of the instrument's detection performance due to the inability to use the air conditioner during overtime. The layout of the central air-conditioning pipeline should be combined with the design of the laboratory exhaust ducts to avoid overlapping and affecting the height of the construction. In extreme weather conditions, it should be possible to ensure a constant temperature adjustment of the sample chamber, the cylinder chamber, the ultra-low temperature refrigerator compartment, the precision instrument room, the uninterruptible power supply room, etc. for a temperature-critical area for 24 hours.
6, laboratory fire system
The laboratory is a special environment, and the requirements for fire protection are much higher than those of ordinary office buildings. The laboratory design should use different fire protection measures to ensure the fire safety of the laboratory according to the specific conditions of the laboratory (equipment investment and process characteristics, experimental process requirements, types of stored samples and reagents, characteristics of laboratory buildings, etc.). For precision instrument rooms and sterile rooms, power distribution rooms, and uninterruptible power supply rooms, automatic fire sprinklers cannot be used for fire protection, but gas fire extinguishing devices should be used to prevent automatic sprinklers from damaging equipment or destroying cleanliness. surroundings.
7, laboratory water supply and drainage system
The piping of the drainage system shall be resistant to acid and alkali corrosion and the melting of organic materials. The material shall be PPR or other materials, and ordinary PVC pipes shall not be used. At the same time, according to the nature, flow rate and discharge law of the sewage and combined with outdoor drainage conditions. set a strategy. Due to the complexity of large-scale laboratory sewer pipes, necessary measures should be taken to avoid pipe blockage leakage, such as developing good water habits, placing filters, setting traps, and connecting the elbows at 45° angles. Concentrated water supply systems are not recommended because of their high cost and unstable water quality. In order to avoid secondary pollution, an inductive faucet can be used, and the disadvantage is that it is easy to break. For the sake of beauty, the water heater can be built-in instant electric water heater.
8, laboratory centralized gas supply system
Many of the equipment in the laboratory require a wide variety of gas supplies to operate. Currently, centralized gas supply is widely used as a mainstream design. The safety of the gas cylinder room must be guaranteed. Explosion-proof doors, venting windows, gas leakage sensing alarm devices, and all electrical circuits should be explosion-proof. Lightning, anti-static and air-conditioning equipment should also be considered.
9, laboratory ventilation system
The laboratory supply and exhaust system is one of the largest and most influential systems throughout the design and construction of the laboratory. Whether the exhaust system is perfect or not directly has an important impact on the laboratory environment, the health of the experimental personnel, and the operation and maintenance of the experimental equipment.
A laboratory with a complete exhaust system should be a workplace with a harmonious environment, safety and health. Laboratory noise, the number of air changes in the room, the pressure difference, and the toxic gas residue in the fume hood are all issues of concern. In addition, the sample chamber and the reagent chamber should also be considered to have ventilation devices to prevent the odor caused by the sample from affecting the environment; a modern laboratory should design a fresh air system; the fresh air diffuser in front of the fume hood should be adjustable. The louver design of the activity room avoids the direct and hot air from the outside of the winter and summer season.