The design and construction of laboratories need to follow certain guidelines. The laboratory design and construction mentioned here are all laboratories. It is not specific, because the design and construction of all laboratories is a very serious fact. If there is no design and layout, However, it is very easy to have a laboratory accident. However, today's BOKA's Xiaobian mainly talks about the design and construction of food laboratories.
1. Site selection (site selection is very important, this is the basis of a laboratory, if the foundation is not good, there will be many problems later)
1. The laboratory should choose clean and quiet place, away from living area, boiler room and traffic arteries;
2. The laboratory should choose a well-lighted and well-ventilated place with a certain distance from the production and processing workshop;
3. Laboratories should choose workplaces that are convenient for sampling and testing, and are closer to the workshop;
II. Structure and layout
The layout of food laboratory design mainly includes the following three parts:
Offices, physical and chemical laboratories, and bacterial laboratories (there are mainly physical and chemical analysis laboratories and bacterial laboratories).
2. Physical and chemical analysis laboratory:
(or merge with bacteria inspection operation room)
1 physical and chemical analysis room (also known as sensory examination room);
2 equipment room (with a small number of equipment such as bacteria chamber microscope).
3. Bacteria Laboratory:
1 bacteria inspection operation room;
2 sterile room;
3 medium production room;
4 washing and disinfection room.
The general layout requirements are as follows:
The office is a place where laboratory personnel perform various tasks such as original records. It is a place where there is more interaction with non-laboratory personnel. Therefore, the requirements for the laboratory office are not very high as a whole and should be set at the outermost level of the overall laboratory. There are simple tables, chairs and other facilities.
2. Bacteria inspection operation room:
(Regular operation): The bacteria inspection operation room is the main operation room for bacterial culture and testing, and the main facility is the test stand.
Requirements for the test bench:
a. The standard width of the experimental side table is 750mm, and the standard width of the central test bed is 1500mm;
b. The location of the laboratory bench should be in the center of the laboratory, with sufficient light;
c. Basins and faucets can be installed on both sides of the test bench;
d. The middle of the test bench is equipped with a reagent rack with a socket;
e. The test bench surface materials should be corrosion resistant, acid and alkali resistant
3. Clean room:
In order to meet the asepsis room aseptic requirements, the aseptic room should meet the following layout:
a. The entrance avoids the corridor and is located in the bacteria inspection operation room;
b. Separate from the operating room with two buffers;
c. UV lamps are installed in the sterile room and the buffer room, requiring a 30-watt UV lamp to be installed every 3 square meters;
d. The sterile room is equipped with an experimental bench (both the central laboratory bench and the side bench), and the UV lamp is less than 1.5m away from the experimental bench.
e. There is a double window between the sterile room and the operating room to form a small channel.
4. Culture medium production room:
The medium chamber is the place where the culture medium required for the cultivation of microorganisms and reagents for testing are prepared. The main equipments should be side tables and medicine cabinets.
a. An electric furnace should be placed on the side table to meet the requirements of melting and boiling the medium;
b. Side table materials must be resistant to heat, acid and alkali;
c. Drug cabinets are divided into categories to store some general drugs and reagents;
d. Dangerous, perishable and flammable toxic and hazardous drugs are separately stored in safes;
e. Scales should be placed on the side table to take medicines.
5. Washing and sterilizing room:
Washing and sterilizing chambers are used to sterilize and wash the used glassware. In order to meet the function of washing and sterilizing, the washing and disinfection room should be provided with:
a. 1 ~ 2 washing pools, clean water from the washing pool up and down;
b. Vessel cabinets or laboratory benches to place well-washed containers;
c. autoclave, its power supply should meet the power load;
d. Indoor ventilation device: fume hood;
e. The conditional unit may also be equipped with a water-distiller device for daily inspection in the room.
6. Physical and chemical analysis room: The physical and chemical analysis room is the main operation room for physical and chemical analysis.
a. The test bed and the bacteria operation room require the same;
b. Set up fume hoods to meet the needs of heating, digestion, drying, cauterization and chemical treatment;
c. Wash basin.
7. Instrument room:
It is used to place microscopes, electronic balances and small instruments for physical and chemical analysis.
a.Requires clean, dry, moisture-proof, insect-proof and light-proof;
b. The instrument platform should be stable and secure.
Under normal circumstances, no matter what the size of the laboratory, the biological laboratory should guarantee at least 4 rooms or 4 partitions.
(1) Scrubbing and disinfecting areas. This area is relatively independent. It is best to use room separation because this area handles waste and has some pollution and humidity.
(2) The medium preparation area, used for the preparation of the culture medium, often has water, etc. and needs to be relatively independent.
(3) General operation area, this is the main operation area, the observation of microbiological test results, microscope operation, general simple physical and chemical operation, instruments and equipment, etc., can be combined in this room or area.
(4) sterile operation area, sterile room, this requirement is independent.
The design and operation of biological laboratories is a big problem. If there is something wrong with the middle of a link, it may lead to deviations in the results of the entire experiment or directly lead to failure. So, this is really going to operate personnel and equipment. Very high, so the relevant laboratory personnel must pay attention to the layout of these tedious little things. We also have the instruments required by these biological labs, and all of them have passed the international certification. We are looking for us to be correct.