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Physical and chemical laboratory design and construction specifications

Sep 28, 2018

Precision instrument room

The precision instrument room is required to have the functions of fireproof, shockproof, anti-electromagnetic interference, anti-noise, moisture-proof, anti-corrosion, dust-proof and anti-harmful gas intrusion. The room temperature is kept as constant as possible. In order to maintain good performance of the general instrument, the temperature should be 15 ~ 30 °C, and the condition is best controlled at 18 ~ 25 °C. Humidity is 60% to 70%, and the instrument room that needs constant temperature can be equipped with double doors and windows and air conditioning units.

The instrument room can be terrazzo or anti-static floor. It is not recommended to use carpet. Because the carpet is easy to accumulate dust, it will also generate static electricity.

The supply voltage of large precision instrument rooms should be stable, and the voltage fluctuation range is generally allowed to be ±10%. If necessary, equip with ancillary equipment (such as a regulated power supply). In order to ensure uninterrupted power supply, dual power supply can be used. A dedicated ground wire should be designed. In the gas chromatograph chamber and the atomic absorption analysis chamber, high-pressure steel cylinders are used, preferably in the vicinity of the outdoor steel cylinder chamber (direction facing north). The test bench for the instrument is 50 cm away from the wall for easy operation and maintenance. There must be good ventilation in the room. A partial exhaust hood is placed above the atomic absorption instrument.

Microcomputers and microcomputer-controlled precision instruments have certain requirements on the supply voltage and frequency. In order to prevent voltage transients, instantaneous power failure, and insufficient voltage, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be selected as needed. At the same time as designing a dedicated instrument analysis room, the corresponding chemical processing room is designed nearby. This is necessary to protect the instrument and strengthen management.

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2. Chemical Analysis Room

The chemical treatment and analytical determination of the sample are carried out in the chemical analysis room. Some small electrical equipment and various chemical reagents are often used in the work, and there are certain risks if the operation is inadvertent. In view of these characteristics of use, the following requirements should be noted in the design of the chemical analysis room:

(1) Building requirements The building of the laboratory shall be constructed of fire-resistant or non-combustible materials, and fire protection shall also be considered for partitions and ceilings. The terrazzo floor can be used, the windows should be dustproof, and the indoor lighting should be good. The door should be opened outwards and the large laboratory should have two exits to facilitate the evacuation of personnel in the event of an accident.

(2) The water supply, drainage and water supply must ensure the necessary water pressure, water quality and quantity of water, and should meet the needs of the normal operation of the equipment. The indoor total valve should be located in a prominent position that is easy to operate. The sewer should be made of acid and alkali resistant materials, and the ground should have floor drains.

(3) Ventilation facilities Due to the toxic or flammable gases often generated in the laboratory work, the laboratory should have good ventilation conditions. The ventilation facilities generally have the following three types.

1 The whole room is ventilated with an exhaust fan or a ventilation shaft. The number of air changes is generally 5 times/hour.

2 The partial exhaust hood is generally installed above the harmful gas part of a large instrument. Above the harmful gases generated in the teaching laboratory, a local exhaust hood is provided to reduce indoor air pollution.

3 fume hood This is a local exhaust device commonly used in laboratories. There are heating sources, gas sources, water sources, lighting and other devices. The fume hood can be made of fire-proof and explosion-proof metal material, and the anti-corrosion coating is applied inside, and the ventilation pipe should be etched by acid and alkali gas. The fan can be installed in the top floor room and should have vibration and noise reduction devices. The exhaust pipe should be more than 2 m above the roof. It is better to connect one exhaust fan to one fume hood. The sharing of one fan and ventilation pipe in different rooms is prone to cross-contamination. The correct position of the fume hood in the room is placed in a place where the air flow is small, not near the doors and windows. Two kinds of slit-type fume hoods with better effect, the ventilating counter surface height is 850 mm, the net height in the cabinet is 1200-1500 mm, the operating port width is 800 mm, and the cabinet length is 1200-1800 mm. The wind speed at the seam is 5m/s or more. The width of the rear air passage of the baffle is equal to more than 2 times the width of the slit.

(4) Pipeline gas can be installed in the gas and power supply conditional laboratory. The power of the laboratory is divided into electricity for lighting and equipment. Lighting is best done with fluorescent lights. In the electricity consumption of the equipment, the electrical appliances running 24h are separately powered by the refrigerator, and the rest of the electrical equipment are controlled by the main switch. The electric heating equipment such as the oven and the high temperature furnace should have special sockets, switches and fuses. Place emergency lights indoors and on the corridors for use when there is a sudden power outage at night.

(5) The experimental bench consists mainly of a table top, a stand under the table and a cabinet.

For the convenience of operation, a medicine rack can be set on the table, and the water tank can be installed at both ends of the table. The test bench is generally 750 mm wide and can be 1600 to 3200 mm depending on the size of the room, and the height can be 800 to 900 mm. The material is all steel or steel wood. The table top should be flat, not easy to be broken, resistant to acid and alkali and solvent corrosion, heat resistant, not easy to break glass equipment. The heating equipment can be placed on the concrete countertop of the brick base with a height of 500 to 700 mm.

3. Auxiliary room

(1) Drug storage room Because many chemical reagents are flammable, explosive, toxic or corrosive, do not purchase too much. The storage room is only used to store a small amount of chemicals that are used in the near future, and must meet the safety requirements for the storage of dangerous goods. It must have the function of preventing open flame, moisture, high temperature, direct sunlight, and lightning protection. The room of the drug storage room should be facing north, dry and well ventilated. The top sill should be shaded and insulated, the doors and windows should be strong, the window should be high window, and the doors and windows should be equipped with sun visors. The door should open outwards. The flammable liquid storage room is generally not allowed to exceed 28 °C at room temperature, and the explosives must not exceed 30 °C. A small number of dangerous goods can be stored in isolation by iron plate cabinet or cement cabinet. The indoor exhaust cooling fan is equipped with explosion-proof lighting fixtures. Fire equipment is available. The semi-basement, which can also meet the above conditions, is a drug storage room.

(2) The flammable or combustion-supporting cylinders in the cylinder chamber are required to be placed in an outdoor cylinder chamber. The cylinder room is required to be kept away from heat, fire and combustibles. The cylinder chamber should be constructed of non-combustible or flame-retardant materials, the wall with an explosion-proof wall, a lightweight top cover, and the door facing outward. Avoid sun exposure and good ventilation. The cylinder is more than 10m away from the open flame heat source, and the indoor is provided with an upright and stable iron frame for placing the cylinder.