First, the meaning and purpose
Microbiology is the science that studies microbes and their life activities. Microorganisms have many characteristics, such as a wide variety of types, small volumes, many metabolic types, high metabolic intensity, rapid growth and reproduction, and easy mutation. It is widely distributed in the air, water, soil, human body, and animals and plants, and operates independently or parasitically. Most microbes are beneficial to humans, animals and plants, and in particular, they have a close relationship with human life. They have great influence on industrial and agricultural production, human living environment and health and hygiene. With the new curriculum reforms, the middle school microbiology has also increased its space in middle school teaching. In particular, the “Laboratory Training of Microorganisms” experiment is a topical experiment for the Biology Elective I of the People’s Education Press Standard for Senior High School Courses. Microbiology experiments are not only comprehensive and operative, but also require students to have strong aseptic skills and biosafety awareness. It is of great significance for cultivating students' theory in connection with reality, practical ability, analytical problem solving ability, and scientific thinking.
Second, function and requirement
The main equipments of the microbiology laboratory include: fermentation tanks, autoclaves, ultra-clean benches, electrothermal incubators, constant temperature and humidity incubators, electric blast ovens, pipettes, Olympus microscopes, refrigerators, Full-temperature oscillator, far-infrared fast drying box and other modern high-tech experimental equipment. The laboratory can carry out the cultivation of microorganisms, the production and separation of microbial metabolites, the detection of microbial indicators for food and drinking water, and the screening of microorganisms. The need for textbook teaching experiments can be better fulfilled, while modern instrument configuration can satisfy students' interest exploration activities.
The design microbiology laboratory consists of a preparation room, a washing room, a sterilization room, a sterile room, a constant temperature training room, and an ordinary laboratory. The common features of these rooms are the smooth and hard texture of the floor and walls, and the simple arrangement of instruments and equipment for cleaning.
Second, the basic requirements of the microbiology laboratory A preparation room preparation room for the preparation of culture media and sample processing. The interior is equipped with reagent cabinets, counters for storing appliances or materials, test benches, electric stoves, refrigerators and water channels, and power supplies.
The washing room washing room is used for scrubbing dishes and the like. Since used vessels have been contaminated by microorganisms, there are sometimes pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, set the washing room if conditions permit. Indoors there should be heaters, steamers, basins for washing dishes, barrels, etc. There should also be various bottle brushes, decontamination powders, soaps, detergents, etc.
III. Sterilization Room Sterilization room is mainly used for the sterilization of the medium and the sterilization of various instruments. The indoor should be equipped with high-pressure steam sterilizers, ovens and other sterilization equipment and facilities.
IV. Sterile Room The sterile room, also known as the inoculation room, is a special laboratory for aseptic operations such as system inoculation and purified strains. In microorganisms, inoculation and transplanting of strains is a major operation. The characteristic of this operation is to ensure that strains are pure and prevent the contamination of bacteria. In the air of the general environment, due to the presence of a lot of dust and germs, it is easy to cause pollution, and it interferes with the inoculation work.
1. Installation of sterile room The sterile room should be set up according to both economical and scientific principles. The basic requirements are as follows:
(1) The sterile room should have two internal and external spaces, an internal sterile room and a buffer room outside. The room volume should not be too large to facilitate air sterilization. Small inner area of 2 × 2.5 = 5m2, outer area of 1 × 2 = 2m2, height of 2.5m or less is appropriate, all should have a ceiling.
(2) Sliding doors should be provided in the interior to reduce the fluctuation of the air. The doors should be set at a position far from the worktable; the outer doors should also be used for sliding doors, and they should be located far from the inner space.
(3) A small window should be opened on the inner or outer wall or partition to make necessary internal and external passages for the inoculation process to reduce the number of personnel entering and leaving the interior and reduce the level of pollution. The window is 60cm wide, 40cm high, and 30cm thick. The sashes are hung inside and outside.
(4) The sterile room is small and tight. After a period of time, the room temperature is very high. Therefore, ventilation windows should be provided. Ventilation windows shall be provided on the ceiling of the inner compartment at the entrance (ie, away from the table), preferably a double-layer structure with shutters on the outer layer and a panel-type sash on the inner layer. Ventilation windows can be opened after use in the internal chamber and before sterilization to allow circulation of air. Conditional conditions can be installed.