The purpose of the lab design is to create a highly efficient, functional and thoughtful laboratory. In the laboratory design,should efficiency consider the safety factors and laboratory efficiency, such as space, workbench, storage cabinets, ventilation, lighting, etc., should be fully considered. Special laboratory should be designed according to the requirements of national standards
First, the laboratory design should be rationalized space
Laboratory design should be based on experimental functional modules and the place of equipment. And Consider the rationalization of space to determine the layout. At the same time should be determined the laboratory room space from the development of laboratory. There are many factors that influence the design of a laboratory space, such as the number of workers, the method of analysis, and the size of the instrument. The laboratory should be flexible and make the staff feel comfortable without waste.
The size of the work space should ensure that a large number of staff members work at the same time. Effective space should be divided into clean area (office, lounge, study room), buffer (storage area, supply area, aisle), contaminated area (work area, washing area, specimen storage area).
Basic principles of laboratory design: flow of people, logistics, air flow should be smooth; clean area, buffer zone, polluted area to be separated.
In the designated experimental area, the number of staff and the number of personnel should be controlled. In addition to controlling access to laboratories, there should also be provision for preparation areas, such as access to samples or specimens, access to laboratory personnel and visitors. Transport samples or specimens through staff, automated transfer, wind systems or other automated systems. Consideration should also be given to internal communication liaisons and sirens for notification or warning such as disasters, fires, sample arrival, or part of the laboratory seeking assistance. Consideration should also be given to the needs of the expansion of laboratory space, the laboratory is designed to scale out or can be moved to meet the future development of the laboratory room for development needs. Transport and computer network systems are used for sample and specimen transport and exchange of information between laboratories and laboratories, respectively. National laws and regulations (including national standards and industry standards, etc.) to a large extent affect the laboratory design, the entire laboratory design should be proposed by the architects of the relevant laws and regulations.
Before making a plan for space allocation, a comprehensive analysis of the equipment and equipment, the number of staff, workload, experimental methods and other factors should be carried out to evaluate the space standards and calculate the net area and gross area of the area. Areas with special functions determine the difference in their allocated space depending on their function and activity. The company is located in:
Second, the layout of the laboratory design
Laboratory layout should consider the following points: Due to the different nature of the work of each laboratory, can not establish a common laboratory common design. However, two principles and flexibility should be considered.
1, the sample transfer and staff flow: the allocation of laboratory area, we should first consider the workflow, sample transfer and circulation, biosafety factors. The company is located in:
2, flexibility: laboratory design can adapt to the needs of future development and changes is extremely important. The company is located in:
3, Security: The design and size of the laboratory should consider the safety and meet the construction rules of emergency clearance and evacuation exit. Equip the safety equipment for each laboratory. Within 30 meters of hazardous chemicals, there should be emergency eyewash and shower rooms. Washrooms should be installed in all laboratories and in direct contact with contaminants, with the hand basin at the exit. Wash basin should be independent and can not be mixed with pollutants and experiment.
4, the establishment of the smoke cover and safety facilities: any safety cover should be placed far away from the exit, in order to meet the principle of harmful experiments away from the main channel.
5, special laboratory design and layout: special laboratory here mainly refers to the laboratory of microbiology and molecular biology, its design should be generally "microbiological and biomedical laboratory biosafety General Guidelines" requirements. Gene amplification laboratories should have adequate space and according to the standard design and layout to avoid laboratory pollution. Microbiological laboratory exposure to harmful microorganisms, the microbial laboratory is usually divided into clean areas, semi-polluted areas, polluted areas. Biosafety cabinets should be used in contaminated areas to protect the health of staff. Modern microbiology laboratories must also have air conditioning and filtration equipment.
Third, the laboratory ventilation design
For laboratory safety, conditionally or conditionally equipped central air handling systems must be provided. Avoid spreading airborne laboratory microbial infections caused by fan blowing. In particular, micro-organisms and biomedical laboratories should prohibit the use of electric fans. Appropriate ventilation not only removes harmful odors and toxic gases in the laboratory, but also ensures the proper operation of the equipment. The number of air exchanges currently advocated in the general laboratory, in areas using steam and biohazard agents, the exchange of air 12 times per hour. Air exchange in the area engaged in microbiology tests up to 16 times per hour.
Fourth, power and communications design
Power layout should deal with laboratory power supply, make full consideration and analysis, pay attention to the following:
1, Laboratory equipment required power and the required number of electrical outlets, the layout is reasonable, safe and convenient to use.
2, electric socket is three holes or two holes. The company is located in:
3, distribution of electrical outlets all over the place, to ensure the safe and convenient use.
4, the required voltage equipment (220V or 380V), power.
5, should take full account of the computer socket. The company is located in:
6, the number of laboratory lighting required by the type of work, the color of the work surface, studio ceiling and wall color, fixed lighting and the distance between the work surface, the size of the lighting space to decide.
7, the location of lighting equipment installation: Lighting equipment should be installed to be vertical or diagonal with the countertop, to eliminate the shadow of objects obscured. The company is located in:
8, special lighting equipment: If the laboratory for the separation of micro-organisms and molecular biology experimental areas, should be able to effectively protect workers and specimens pollution-free. UV lamp is the more commonly used disinfection equipment. The distance between the fixed UV lamp and the ground should not exceed 2.1 meters. The number of UV lamps should be decided according to the laboratory space. When using UV lighting, be sure that the surface of the object (eg wall paint, countertops, etc.) can withstand UV bleaching.
9, in the design of power supply in addition to considering the current needs to use, there should be enough to meet the needs of the laboratory expansion.
10, communication In the laboratory to achieve information technology, networking, will greatly improve the quality of laboratory management and work efficiency, laboratory design should be carefully designed communication lines, in addition to fully meet the current needs, but also should have The extra capacity accommodates the increase and movement of the instrument.