1. Laboratory site selection
To rationalize the construction of the laboratory, we should first consider the rationality of the site selection, not only the impact of the surrounding environment on the laboratory testing, but also the impact that the laboratory testing may have on the surrounding environment. The location of the laboratory should be away from the streets, workshops, boiler rooms, substations and other places to reduce vehicle noise, mechanical vibration, dust, dust, harmful gases and other interference to the laboratory and electromagnetic radiation. The laboratory should be away from environmentally sensitive areas such as kindergartens, residential buildings, and drinking water source protection areas, so as to avoid pollution hazards caused by the laboratory to sensitive environmental protection targets. The location of the laboratory should also consider convenient transportation, power supply and water supply protection, sewage treatment facilities, and northern laboratories should also consider heating facilities in winter. If the laboratory is unreasonable, it is difficult to eliminate the fundamental hidden dangers.
2. The laboratory should coordinate with the overall building pattern
It is best to use the physical and chemical laboratory of agricultural products alone to build a building. Try not to build with other units in order to carry out the layout design according to the inspection workflow, which is also conducive to future work management. If the laboratory does need to be built with other units, it should try to ensure that the laboratory room layout is relatively concentrated to facilitate management and avoid interference from outsiders. At the same time, it should also be considered that the laboratory ventilation system and the water supply and drainage system pipelines are reasonable in direction, which is convenient for testing, and can not bring adverse effects to other units, and should be coordinated with the overall building pattern as much as possible.
Agricultural product physical and chemical laboratory layout construction
3. The internal process layout of the laboratory should be reasonable
The overall design of the laboratory should be beautiful and applicable, and the layout should be reasonable to meet the requirements of the inspection workflow. Specific requirements: laboratory rooms should be relatively concentrated, which is conducive to management; inspection areas and office areas should be separated from each other to avoid interference; laboratories should be well equipped with water and electricity, and ventilation should be good; equipment should be relatively concentrated and classified; room layout should be spacious and bright. For ease of operation; the test bench should be stable and firm, acid and alkali resistant; the experimental ground should be flat, non-slip, anti-corrosive and flameproof. The physical and chemical laboratory of agricultural products generally consists of sample room, balance room, pre-treatment room, instrument room, reagent room, data archive room, sample receiving room, office, conference room, etc. The layout of each room should pay attention to the following points.
a. The sample room should be set as a separate room, and special personnel management should be carried out to ensure the safety of sample handling and storage; the sample room should be placed in the shaded room as much as possible to prevent changes in sample composition due to sunlight; the sample chamber should be dry, clean, well ventilated, sample They should be placed in categories to avoid mutual confusion and cross-contamination.
b. The balance chamber should be set as a separate room. The table top with the balance should be firm and stable, and the anti-vibration performance is good. The balance chamber requires temperature and humidity to be relatively constant, so it should be set in the shaded room as much as possible to avoid the change of daytime temperature and humidity. Large; the balance chamber is best equipped with a buffer door to prevent the accuracy of air flow symmetry; in the room next door of the balance chamber, equipment such as shredders, centrifuges, ultrasonic scrubbers, etc., which generate vibration and noise should not be placed, so as to avoid the work of symmetry. have influence on.
c. The pretreatment chamber should be divided into at least two separate rooms: the inorganic pretreatment chamber and the organic pretreatment chamber. The inorganic pretreatment chamber is mainly used for treatment with inorganic reagents such as acid, alkali and salt, and is generally mainly subjected to operations such as heating, digestion, distillation, and titration. Since an open flame such as an electric furnace is often used, organic reagents cannot be operated in the room to avoid a fire accident. The organic pretreatment chamber is mainly used for treatment with organic reagents such as methanol, diethyl ether and acetone, and is generally subjected to operations such as extraction, concentration, purification, and rotary evaporation. Since the main use of flammable and explosive organic reagents, the use of open flame heating equipment such as electric furnaces and ovens should be avoided in the room. The pre-treatment room is the main place for detection and analysis. The room layout should be spacious, bright, ventilated and easy to operate.
d. The instrument room should generally be set up as a separate room, especially for large precision instruments. It should not be placed in the pre-treatment room to avoid corrosion of the instrument board and affect the service life. Do not mix the instruments and equipment that interfere with each other in the instrument room. If conditions permit, place them as far as possible according to the spectrum, chromatography, oven, centrifuge, pre-treatment equipment, special equipment, etc. The instrument room should be relatively dry to avoid moisture, and the instrument should be placed away from direct sunlight. For instruments and equipment with special installation requirements such as atomic absorption spectrophotometer, the exhaust position should be designed in advance.
e. The reagent room is a special room for storing chemical reagents. It should be managed by a special person, and rigorously enter the outside to ensure the safe use of chemical reagents. Since some chemical reagents are photodegraded, the reagent chamber should be placed in the shaded room as much as possible. The reagent room should be well ventilated and safe to prevent fire; reagents should be stored separately to avoid confusion. f. The data archives should generally be set up as separate rooms, and special personnel management should be carried out. It is strictly forbidden for unrelated personnel to enter at will, to ensure the safe storage of data files. The data archive should be placed in a shaded room as much as possible to prevent exposure to sunlight. The data archives should be well ventilated and protected from moisture. The data files should be tidy and clearly classified, and ensure safety and fire prevention.
g. The sample receiving room is used to receive foreign samples, which should generally be located at the entrance of the entrance hall to facilitate the external sample delivery personnel. The room should be wide and bright, in order to facilitate the receipt of the sample registration, and prevent the samples from being confused with each other, the sample collection personnel and the sample delivery personnel should be separated from each other through the work surface, which is also conducive to the confidential work between different customers. h. Offices, conference rooms, etc. belong to the daily office meeting place, generally should be located outside the inspection area, the office should be as close as possible to the entrance of the entrance hall to avoid interference from outside personnel crossing the inspection area.
4. The water and electricity ventilation facilities in the laboratory should be complete.
The hydropower ventilation facilities in the laboratory are the basic guarantee for the inspection work. The laboratory should be rationally designed according to the specific use of each room. Under normal circumstances, laboratory water mainly includes experimental cooling cycle water, instrument water, medicated water, washing water, fire water, etc. When designing laboratory water, the difference between testing items and workload should be fully considered to ensure sufficient water supply and convenient use. . The laboratory power is generally divided into two parts: lighting power and instrument power. The two lines should be separately configured. When designing the power load power in the room, it should be based on the sum of the actual load power of the instrument, and consider the future development needs to ensure The allocation of power resources is sufficient and reasonable. The ventilation facility is an important infrastructure of the laboratory and should be reasonably designed according to the different inspection items. The pipeline material of the ventilation facility should have acid and alkali resistance and corrosion resistance. In general, the sample chamber, reagent chamber, pretreatment chamber, and digestion The room should be equipped with a sufficient number of ventilation facilities to ensure the health of the test personnel.
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