Savings can be seen everywhere on campus, such as food savings in the canteen, water and electricity savings in the dormitory, classrooms, and offices. There is also a place worth paying attention to - the laboratory.
How do school laboratories achieve energy conservation and emission reduction? I think we should start with the following aspects.
First, carefully purchase, carefully kept.
Chemicals are divided into several levels of purity. The prices of different grades vary greatly. We should not only choose high purity when purchasing, but should select the appropriate level according to the actual requirements of the experiment. The general principle of purchasing drugs is to ensure the success of the experiment and to save money. If the purity is low, the purity is not high.
Due to the special nature of chemicals, its storage is very important. If it is not properly stored, it will consume a lot of drugs. Therefore, we must take care of the drugs. According to the characteristics of the drug, the corresponding storage method is adopted. For example, for volatile, sublimation, deliquescence, and hydrolysis, a sealed storage method can be used. For drugs that are easily decomposed by light, they are stored in the dark. Some medicines should be preserved by oil seal or water seal method, such as potassium sodium stored in kerosene and yellow phosphorus stored in water. At the same time, the experimental teachers should check the medicines frequently, find out the problems in time, and strive to minimize the loss of medicines.
Second, control the amount of drugs.
In the student experiment, the phenomenon of wasted due to excessive drug usage is widespread. Many students think that "more is better," the more drugs, the better the experimental results. In addition, many students have no concept of quantity, such as taking 1-2mL of liquid, but may take half of the test tube. Therefore, in the experiment, we must educate students to use the medicines strictly according to the prescribed amount of the textbooks. If there is no explanation, they should be used according to the principle of small quantity. On the other hand, the method of estimating the amount of medicine used by the students is generally equivalent to 20 drops of 1 mL, or the teacher takes out the sample and presents it to the students for viewing. And a limited supply of some drugs, so as to reduce the amount of drugs, to minimize the use of drugs. In addition, many reactions do not have to be carried out according to the amount of materials used in the textbook, so that not only are there more reagents to be lost, but the experimental phenomenon may not be able to reach an ideal state. The smaller the amount, the more subtle changes can often be seen. Therefore, the teacher can change many doses in the student's experiment according to the actual situation, which not only saves the purpose, but also effectively improves the quality of the experiment and ensures the experimental effect.
In short, the principle of taking medicines in experiments is to ensure that the experiment is successful without wasting.
Third, standardize the operation and cultivate students' good habits.
Many of the wasteful phenomena in the experiment are caused by the irregular operation of the students. For example, if the instrument is not preheated, the instrument will rupture. When the solid drug is heated, the test tube is broken due to the upward flow of the test tube, and the match is repeatedly ignited by the familiar operation steps. Therefore, students should first be required to do adequate preparatory work before the experiment. Before each experiment, the teacher repeatedly emphasizes the relevant precautions and requires the students to operate in strict accordance with the operating specifications. At the same time, teachers should be supervised during the student's experiment and strive to cultivate students' good habits.
Fourth, pay attention to drug recycling, using substitutes.
After each experiment, there are many residues and waste liquids. If they are thrown away, it will waste and pollute the environment. In fact, there are many substances in these residues and waste liquids that can be recycled. Therefore, some unreacted drugs and products after the reaction can be recycled and reused. For example, after the hydrogen production experiment is completed, the unreacted zinc particles and the reaction product zinc sulfate are used, and the manganese dioxide in the residue after the oxygen experiment is prepared by using hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide; the marble after the carbon dioxide experiment is prepared, etc. Can be recycled and reused. In addition, many experimental alternatives can be found in life. Such as: collecting copper from waste wires, collecting zinc flakes, manganese dioxide, graphite, etc. from waste batteries. Use a mineral water bottle instead of a gas cylinder to collect the gas. These measures can turn waste into treasure and protect the environment.
Fifth, appropriate implementation of micro-experiments
The so-called micro-experiment is an experimental method and technique for obtaining the required chemical information by conducting experiments in micro-chemical instruments with as few chemical reagents as possible. As a new method and new technology of chemical experiment, the micro-chemical experiment has two outstanding features: one is the small amount of reagents in the experiment, and the other is the chemical experiment in the miniaturized instrument device. Compared with conventional chemical experiments, micro-chemical experiments have: 1 saving experimental funds; 2 safe operation and low pollution. The amount of micro-experimental drugs is small, the reaction products are few, and there is no danger in the experiment; 3 saving time. The amount of micro-experimental drugs is small and the reaction speed is fast. 4 stimulate students' interest in learning. Therefore, the appropriate implementation of micro-experiments in junior high school chemistry experiments can not only save experimental funds and experiment time, but also cultivate students' awareness of conservation and environmental protection, and stimulate students' interest in learning.
Sixth, improve the system and clarify the responsibility
As the saying goes, "No rules are not square." If you want to establish a conservation-oriented laboratory, you must improve various rules and regulations, make these rules and regulations and students clear, and strictly follow these rules and regulations in the experiment to clarify their respective responsibilities. At the same time, we must rely on the strength of everyone to earnestly save everyone, and there will be a saving laboratory, a saving collective, and a saving society. Through the above efforts, not only can we achieve the purpose of saving medicines and funds, but also cultivate students' awareness of saving.
The above Volleyball's effective advice on reducing waste within the school laboratory is hopeful to help you.