Laboratory design requirements
First, the laboratory's classification and responsibilities:
Laboratories are analytical laboratories. They have different properties in schools, factories, and research institutes.
The laboratory of the school is a teaching base for students for analytical chemistry experiments, and the other is an analytical chemistry research laboratory for scientific research.
The factory has a central laboratory and a workshop laboratory. The laboratory laboratory is mainly responsible for the control analysis of finished products and semi-finished products in the production process. Central Laboratory is mainly responsible for
Raw material analysis, product quality inspection tasks, as well as analytical method research, improvement, promotion tasks, preparation and calibration of standard solutions used in laboratory laboratories, etc.
In addition to carrying out test tasks for scientific research projects, laboratory laboratories of scientific research institutes also conduct research work on analytical chemistry.
Second, the laboratory design requirements:
According to the needs of the experimental task, the laboratory has valuable precision instruments and various chemicals, including flammable and corrosive drugs. In addition, there are often
Harmful gas or vapor. Therefore, there are special requirements for the housing structure, environment, indoor facilities, etc. of the laboratory. It is necessary to build a new laboratory or to reconstruct or expand the original test.
Should be considered when the room.
Laboratory rooms are roughly divided into three categories: precision instrument laboratories, chemical analysis laboratories, and auxiliary rooms (offices, storage rooms, cylinders, etc.).
Laboratories are required to be kept away from dust, smoke, noise and vibration sources. Therefore, the laboratory should not be built near traffic lanes, boiler rooms, computer rooms and production workshops.
(Except for workshops). In order to maintain good weather conditions, it should generally be north-south.
1. Precision Instrument Room
The precision equipment room is required to have the functions of fire prevention, shockproof, electromagnetic interference prevention, noise prevention, moisture proof, anticorrosion, dustproof, and anti-harmful gas intrusion.
keep constant. In order to maintain the good performance of the general instrument, the temperature should be in the range of 15 to 30°C, and the best condition is 18-25°C. Humidity is 60%-70%,
Instrument rooms that require constant temperature can be equipped with double doors and windows and air conditioning units.
The instrument room can use terrazzo or anti-static flooring. It is not recommended to use carpets because carpets can accumulate dust and generate static electricity. Bossbo large precision instrument room
The supply voltage should be stable, generally allowing a voltage fluctuation range of ±10%. When necessary, equipped with ancillary equipment (such as power supply, etc.). To ensure uninterrupted power supply
Dual power supply can be used. A special ground wire should be designed. a The grounding resistance is less than 4Ω.
Gas chromatography chambers and atomic absorption analysis chambers are preferably located near the outdoor cylinder room (facing toward the north) due to the use of high-pressure cylinders. Instrumentation
The distance between the bench and the wall is 500mm to facilitate operation and maintenance. Indoors should have good ventilation. A local exhaust hood is located above the atomic absorption instrument.
Microcomputers and microcomputer-controlled precision instruments have certain requirements for the supply voltage and frequency. In order to prevent voltage transients, instantaneous power failure, voltage shortage, etc.
The device works, and an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be used as required.
While designing a dedicated instrument analysis room, the corresponding chemical processing room is designed to be located nearby. This is necessary to protect the equipment and strengthen management.
2, chemical analysis room
Chemical analysis and analysis of the sample in the chemical analysis room, often use some small electrical equipment and various chemical reagents, such as operation is not
Caution also has certain risks. For these characteristics of use, the following requirements should be noted in the design of the chemical analysis room:
(1) Construction requirements The building of a laboratory should be fireproofed or constructed of non-flammable materials. The partitions and ceilings should also take into account fire performance. Can use terrazzo
On the ground, windows should be dustproof and indoor lighting should be better. The doors should open outwards, and the big laboratory should set up two exits to facilitate the evacuation of personnel in the event of an accident.
(2) Water Supply and Drainage Water supply must ensure the required water pressure, water quality and water quantity to meet the normal operation of equipment and equipment. Indoor total valve should be located in the easy
The prominent position of the operation. The sewer should use acid and alkali resistant materials, and the floor should have floor drain.
(3) Ventilation facilities As laboratory tests often produce toxic or flammable gases, a laboratory should have good ventilation and ventilation facilities.
There are 3 kinds:
1 Ventilation in the whole room: exhaust fans or ventilation shafts are used. The number of air changes is generally 5 times/hour.
2 Local Exhaust Hood: Generally installed above the harmful gas parts of large instruments. Above the harmful gas produced in the teaching laboratory, set up the bureau
Exhaust hood to reduce indoor air pollution.
3 Fume Hoods: This is a local exhaust device commonly used in laboratories. There are heating, water, lighting and other devices. Can use fireproof and explosion-proof metal materials
Make a fume hood, apply anti-corrosion paint, and the ventilation duct must be resistant to acid and alkali gas corrosion. The fan can be installed in the top machine room and should reduce vibration and noise
For the device, the exhaust pipe should be more than 2m above the roof. It is better to connect one exhaust fan to a fume hood, and it is easy to share one fan and ventilation duct in different rooms.
Cross-contamination. The correct position of Bosib fume hoods in the room is to be placed in a place where the air flow is small, or a slit-type fume hood with good effect is used. ventilation
The height of the countertop is 800mm, width is 750mm, the net height in the cabinet is 1200-1500mm, the operating port height is 800mm, and the cabinet length is 1200-1800mm. Wind speed at the seam
The window opening height of 0.3-0.5m/s is 300-500mm. The baffle rear air duct width is equal to more than 2 times the slit width.
(4) Gas supply and power supply Conditional laboratory can install pipeline gas. The power supply for the laboratory is divided into electricity for lighting and electricity for equipment. The best use of fluorescent lighting
. In the electricity used in the equipment, the electric appliances that operate for 24 hours are supplied separately from the refrigerator, and the rest of the electric equipment are controlled by the main switch. The electric heating equipment such as the oven and the high-temperature furnace should have
Special sockets, switches and fuses. Bossbo placed emergency lights indoors and on the corridors to prepare for sudden power outages at night.
(5) Experimental bench The experimental bench is mainly composed of a table top, a stand under the table and a temporary storage cabinet. For the convenience of operation, a medicine rack may be set on the table, and both ends of the table may be
Install the sink. The experimental bench is generally 750mm wide, and the length may be 1500-3000mm, and the height may be 800-850mm depending on the room size. Countertops commonly used for corrosion resistance
Laminated physical and chemical board, corrosion resistant solid physics and chemistry board, epoxy board or high temperature ceramic board made. The ideal table should be flat, not broken, acid and alkali resistant and solvent
Corrosion, heat resistance, difficult to crush glassware, etc.
3, auxiliary room
(1) Drug store room Do not buy too much because many chemical reagents are flammable, explosive, toxic, or corrosive. Storage room for storage only
A small amount of chemicals to be used in the near future must meet the safety requirements for storage of dangerous goods. Must have anti-fire, anti-humidity, anti-high temperature, direct sunlight, and lightning protection
The function of electricity. The drug store room should be facing north, dry and well ventilated, the ceiling should be shaded and insulated, the doors and windows should be solid, the windows should be high windows, doors and windows should be covered
Positive plate. The door should open outwards. a The flammable liquid storage room is generally not allowed to exceed 28°C at room temperature, and explosives must not exceed 30°C. A small amount of dangerous goods can be used in iron cabinets or
Cement cabinets are classified and stored separately. Ventilation cooling fans are installed indoors, and explosion-proof lighting fixtures are used. Fire equipment is available. Semi-underground that can meet the above conditions
The room is a drug storage room.
(2) The flammable or combustible gas cylinders in the cylinder room are required to be placed in an outdoor cylinder room. The cylinder room must be kept away from sources of heat, fire and flammable materials. Cylinder
The room shall be constructed of non-combustible or non-combustible materials. The walls shall be made of explosion-proof walls and lightweight roofs with the doors facing outwards. Avoid sunlight and have good ventilation parts. Cylinder
More than 10m away from the open source of fire, there is an upright and stable iron frame in the room for placing steel cylinders.