Medical laboratory construction series
Laboratory planning laboratory construction laboratory design laboratory decoration
For medical laboratory design, in addition to the usual functional requirements, the following aspects usually need to be considered.
Compliance is a top priority for all designs. Relevant regulatory authorities have basic requirements for laboratories, such as fire protection, construction, electricity use, and sewage disposal, which are designed, implemented, and accepted in accordance with basic regulatory requirements. Many hospitals now have ISO15189-approved requirements, so all designs need to be implemented based on ISO15189 standards.
Laboratory safety is divided into biosafety, physical security, and electrical safety.
(1) Biosafety. The laboratory has special requirements for biosafety: including necessary biosafety facilities, such as non-manual hand washing devices and emergency eyewash devices at the exit; some high-risk risks should be carried out in the secondary biosafety cabinet, in accordance with BSL- The level 2 laboratory requires the installation of clean areas and contaminated areas.
(2) Physical security. From the current situation, some laboratories fail to effectively avoid safety hazards, and some accidental accidents will bring significant losses to the laboratory: the mechanical fire caused by the short circuit of the electrical equipment, causing damage to the equipment of the same line; The road rupture caused the flooded laboratory; the temperature of the reagent was too high and deteriorated due to power failure or refrigerator failure; the mouse was bitten by the equipment line, which caused maintenance difficulties and the inspection work was interrupted. Therefore, in addition to ensuring conventional safety, it is necessary to focus on improving circuit capacity, power failure protection, fireproof materials, automatic fire extinguishing devices, and equipment for preventing rodents from entering.
In recent years, with the development of sensing technology and mobile communication, some early warning systems have begun to be integrated into the design and construction of laboratories. For example, temperature, humidity, fire, and flood can achieve multiple points of detection and alarm, and automatic emergency response. And transfer it to relevant management personnel in real time to prevent problems before they happen.
In recent years, due to the rapid development of hospitals, the number of patients has increased, and the number of samples has increased. However, the laboratory did not predict the future development at the beginning of the design, which made the existing equipment and facilities do not match the actual demand. Many hospitals have to adjust other space to the laboratory. This follow-up solution usually makes the existing space and the original laboratory geographically far away, and invisibly increases the flow distance of people, objects, and specimens, and increases the workload. Therefore, the design of the laboratory must fully consider the development of the next 5-8 years, and reserve space for the professional, project, equipment, personnel office and training venues that may be added in the future; reserve for equipment facilities that may be added in the future. Power, water, and network ports.
Domestic laboratory design, the focus is often on function and cost, easy to ignore the user's feelings. With the improvement of social needs, the design of humanity has gradually begun to be valued by people. Human factors engineering has even been a subject, and more and more people are paying attention to it.
The user-friendly design can enhance the comfort of the staff, reduce the work intensity and improve the work efficiency. The pleasing laboratory is also conducive to creating a good working atmosphere and cultivating the rigorous work habits of the staff. For example, whether the height of the work surface needs to be adjusted according to the height, how the distance between the night duty room and the emergency area is reasonable, and whether the placement area of all instruments matches the workflow, these have become a modern laboratory design worthy of in-depth optimization. Link.
Not only that, the humanized design of the laboratory will also provide patients with a good medical environment and ease the mood of patients. For the laboratory, it is often necessary to consider the spaciousness and comfort of the patient waiting space, the practical problems of sample sampling, convenience of inspection results, and so on.
The equipment purchase in the laboratory should first consider the actual needs, and do not blindly pursue advanced, automated, high-throughput technologies and equipment. At present, there are some laboratories equipped with equipment that are far more capable, some functions are completely unusable, and some automation facilities cannot match their own processes and systems. Of course, the purchase of equipment is absolutely not only able to consider the price, equipment quality, brand and extended service are very important for future use. The choice of laboratory reagents, quality control, and calibrator consumables is also very important and requires full consideration of quality.
If there is a laboratory design, the number of waiting personnel is not fully estimated, which will result in insufficient waiting space, insufficient space for drawing blood, and intensive personnel. After the scene is very chaotic, it has to spend a lot of manpower and resources to re-plan.
(6) Normative references
The terms in the following documents become the terms of this standard by reference to this guide. For dated references, subsequent Amendments (not including errata content) or revisions do not apply to this Guide, but parties to agreements based on this guide are encouraged to study whether new versions of these documents may be used. For undated references, the new edition applies to this guide.
General Guidelines for Biosafety in Microbiology and Biomedical Laboratories, Ministry of Health
(7) Space design requirements
Spatial planning is an important part of laboratory design, and proper laboratory space is the basis for laboratory testing quality and staff safety. Insufficient space is a safety hazard in the laboratory and affects the quality of the work in the laboratory.
(8) Rationalized space
The rational allocation of space is determined according to the needs of the placement equipment. At the same time, the laboratory space should be determined from the perspective of development, so that it can accommodate newly added instruments and equipment for a long time, and complete clinical work efficiently and safely.
(9) Principle of space allocation
The general principle of space allocation is to make the staff feel comfortable without waste, taking into account factors such as the number of staff, the method of analysis and the size of the instrument.
(10) Work space
The size of the workspace should be a larger number of workers working at the same time. The effective space should be divided into clean areas (offices, lounges, study rooms), buffer zones (storage areas, supply areas), and contaminated areas (work areas, washing areas, specimen storage areas). The work area should include the area occupied by the staff and the space that moves back and forth. The working space and moving space should be converted into the size of the area occupied on the floor.