1. Environmental requirements of chemical laboratory
The environmental requirements of chemical laboratories are very high. In order for laboratories to function in an orderly, safe, and sustainable manner, the following environmental requirements must be met:
The house and water, electricity, gas and other pipeline facilities of the laboratory are standardized and perfect, the experimental equipment and various accessories are intact; the laboratory site layout is reasonable, the passage is unobstructed, clean and hygienic; the laboratory safety signs are complete, eye-catching and intuitive;
Laboratory safety protection facilities and alarm devices are safe and reliable; safety accident rescue facilities are complete and have good performance.
(1) Ground leveling The ground of the laboratory, preparation room, and medicine room should be safe, that is, the ground of each room on the same floor is at the same level, and the passages between the rooms, the floor of the room and the corridor are not provided with steps, no Set the threshold. The ground should be smooth and non-slip, and there should be no protrusions or obstacles on the ground of each channel. In rooms equipped with floor drains, the ground water should be natural and smooth without siltation.
(2) Appropriate demonstration tables, laboratory tables, chemistry laboratory demonstration tables, and student laboratory tables use anti-acid and flame retardant panels. In order to prevent laboratory instruments and other items from sliding off the desktop, surround the front and both sides of the desktop The specific size of the board is: the height of the surrounding board is 0.05m, the thickness is 0.012m, and the length of both sides is 0.1 to 0.2m. A sink is set next to the chemistry laboratory demonstration table and student experiment table, and a gooseneck faucet (copper chrome plating) is configured. The water pipe below the tabletop does not leak. If there are multiple laboratories, at least one chemical laboratory power supply should be installed on the table, equipped with several network information ports, and equipped with multimedia projection equipment.
(3) Water supply and drainage The reasonable water supply and drainage facilities of the chemical laboratory and its supporting ancillary buildings include water inlet, water outlet, washing sink, emergency flushing nozzle, floor drain and other facilities. In principle, the laboratory demonstration table and the student experiment table should have water supply and drainage, at the same time, at least one laboratory experiment table should be installed with a high-level gooseneck faucet for washing burettes, pipettes, etc. The glass device and rinse mouth serve as first aid. The medicine room and preparation room should also have a water supply faucet, a washing sink, and an outlet water channel with a decontamination elbow, so as to facilitate the cleaning work such as wiping the instrument. The preparation room, dangerous goods room, medicine room, etc. should also be equipped with first-aid flushing nozzles and floor drains, and equipped with water pipes of appropriate length to facilitate timely flushing of the ground and some places that need to be flushed.
(4) Good ventilation and exhaust According to national regulations, chemical laboratories require that the number of ventilations be no less than 3 times/hour, and various natural ventilation measures should be taken to keep the indoor CO2 concentration below 0.15%. Among them, one of the chemical laboratories draws exhaust air to the table (6 parallel classes are standard). Therefore, ventilation fans should be installed in the laboratory, and 1/3 of the exhaust fans should be installed on the table to ensure that the indoor carbon dioxide concentration is less than 0.15%. The chemical laboratory should adopt the method of opening windows (hot areas) or combining window ventilation and small window ventilation (warm areas). At the same time, chemical laboratories often produce some toxic and harmful gases with relatively high density, which will stagnate under the room, but harmful gases cannot be exhausted to aisles and corridors. Therefore, exhaust fans should be installed on the outer wall against the ground, but The position should not be too low to avoid short circuit of the circuit during flushing. In order to prevent backflushing and facilitate northward exhaust in winter, wind-proof measures should be provided on the outdoor side of the fan opening, and a protective cover should be provided on the indoor side. In addition, the chemical laboratory, preparation room, and medicine room should also be equipped with forced ventilation and exhaust systems, and the suction port should be installed on the teacher's demonstration table and student desk.
(5) Reasonable lighting and lighting intensity
Daylighting "Code for design of primary and middle school buildings" requires: the minimum value of the experimental tabletop lighting coefficient of the laboratory is 1.5%, and the glass-to-ground ratio is 1.6; the walkway and staircase should be directly lighted; the surface of the room should be decorated with light colors, and the surface of the interior The reflection coefficient value should meet the requirements of Table 1-1. Table 1-1 The reflection coefficient values of each surface in the room Surface name Reflection coefficient (%) Ceiling 70～80 Front wall 50～60 Floor 20～30 Side wall and rear wall 70～80 Class desk 35～50 Blackboard 15～20
Lighting The average illuminance of the laboratory desktop should not be less than 150Lx. Fluorescent lamps should be used as the lighting source. The minimum hanging height of the lamps from the table should not be less than 1.7m, and the arrangement of the lamp tubes should be arranged with the long axis perpendicular to the blackboard. The blackboard should also be equipped with a blackboard lamp. The blackboard lamp should not cause direct glare to students and teachers. The average value of its vertical illuminance should not be less than 200 Lx. At the same time, the average illuminance on the blackboard should not be less than 0.7.
(6) The instrument room and the medicine room are independently configured. The dangerous goods room should be established separately, equipped with a certain number of dangerous goods cabinets, and meet the relevant requirements of the public security and fire departments. The shelf in the medicine cabinet should be designed as a ladder, and ventilation devices should be designed; the material of the shelf panel should be heat-resistant, acid-resistant, alkali-resistant, and flame-retardant. Dangerous goods cabinets should be anti-corrosive and have necessary safety measures.
(7) A toxic gas cabinet should be set up in the chemical preparation room, which is connected to the main exhaust duct for toxic gas experiments. Recommended for you: Chemical laboratory safety protection tips
(8) Accident emergency facilities are complete. Each laboratory should be equipped with an emergency first aid flushing nozzle and first aid kit, and the medicines in the first aid kit should pay attention to its effectiveness.