Site selection requirements
The construction of a tuberculosis laboratory first considers regulations and requirements such as biological safety, environmental protection, and building technical codes, while avoiding pollution sources such as chemical, biological, dust, noise, vibration, strong electromagnetic fields, and flammable and explosive places.
Laboratory partition and its basic requirements
Specimen registration is no less than 3m², smear microscopy laboratory no less than 15m², culture medium preparation no less than 15m², storage room no less than 10m², culture room no less than 15m², drug sensitivity and identification no less than 25m², molecular The biology laboratory is no less than 30m², the disinfection and cleaning is no less than 10m², and the training/meeting room is recommended to be around 20m². Process: specimen acceptance-smear microscopy-culture-drug sensitivity test.
The laboratory needs good natural ventilation, and ventilation equipment should be equipped when necessary. Operations such as inoculation, isolation and identification of bacteria should be carried out in a biological safety cabinet. In order to prevent cross-contamination during testing of highly infectious microorganisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and protect the health of staff, the laboratory should be divided into at least 3 zones.
(1) Clean area: including office, rest room, experimental data processing, etc. The detection of pathogens and other contaminated specimens and related test activities are prohibited in this area.
(2) Buffer zone: located in the buffer zone between the clean area and the operation area, wear isolation gowns, set up water sources for staff to wash hands and ultraviolet light disinfection supplies, etc. The detection of pathogens and other contaminated specimens and related test activities are prohibited in this area.
(3) Contaminated area (operation area): The operation area of the laboratory is the core area for conducting experimental research. The most basic requirements are as follows.
1. Clean and tidy: The microbial operation area is a place where various pathogens are relatively concentrated. In order to reduce the flow of dust and prevent cross contamination, the operation area should be separated from the outside world. Laboratory staff should wear isolation gowns, masks, hats and shoe covers when entering the operating area. The laboratory must be equipped with a hand-washing sink, which should be set near the exit of the laboratory and the buffer zone of the laboratory. The hand-washing faucet should be an automatic induction type, long-handle type or foot-operated type, equipped with hand-washing and disinfecting soap, and equipped when necessary Quick hand sanitizer.
2. Access control: The door of the laboratory should have windows that can be closed automatically; if there are openable windows, mosquito-proof screens should be installed. The door at the main entrance of the laboratory shall have access control measures.
3. Light: The observation of small colonies cultured by bacteria requires sufficient light to ensure the correct judgment of the experimental results.
4. Ventilation: Natural ventilation can be used in the laboratory. If mechanical ventilation is used, cross contamination must be avoided. If the exhaust air of the biological safety cabinet circulates indoors, the room should have ventilation conditions; if the biological safety cabinet that requires ducted exhaust air is used, it should be exhausted through a duct independent of other public ventilation systems of the building.
5. Temperature and humidity: Due to the requirements of aseptic operation, the installation of ceiling fans in microbiology laboratories is prohibited. In order to achieve the appropriate temperature required for the experiment, especially to meet the temperature and humidity requirements of certain instruments, the laboratory should be equipped with a thermometer and hygrometer and air-conditioning.
6. Power supply: It is required to provide a regulated and constant frequency power supply; according to the requirements of equipment and equipment, an uninterruptible power supply is provided when necessary.
7. Water source: Water source and eyewash device must be installed in the operation area, and emergency shower should be installed when necessary. The sink used for specimen processing (such as bacterial staining) and the sink used by the staff for washing hands should not be mixed.
8. Pollutant treatment: The operation area must be equipped with a disinfection tank to deal with contaminated objects such as glass slides stained with laboratory specimens and living bacteria. The remaining specimens and used bacteria-carrying bamboo sticks, droppers, culture medium, etc. must be autoclaved and then washed or discarded.
9. Layout: The layout of the laboratory should be reasonable, and the flow of people and logistics in the laboratory area should be avoided.
Laboratory area and decoration requirements
1. The layout of the laboratory is mainly based on the side table or combined with the central table. The refrigerator, constant temperature incubator, reagent cabinet, biological safety cabinet and other equipment usually need to be placed along the wall.
2. The clear height of the laboratory is ideally around 2.7m, and the technical interlayer is 0.8-1.0m (not less than 0.4m under the beam), that is, the floor height is 3.5-3.7m.
3. Laboratory walls should be constructed of building materials with low surface adsorption, easy cleaning, and smoothness. Recommended material: glass magnesium color steel plate.
4. Colored glass should not be used outside the laboratory to avoid errors in color perception judgment during the experiment. Physical barriers should be adopted for those requiring protection from light.
5. The laboratory floor should be made of corrosion-resistant, abrasion-resistant, and easy-to-wash PVC floor glue building materials.
6. The basic working conditions of the tuberculosis laboratory: the power supply is three-phase four-wire, and the power supply voltage is 220V/380V. The ambient temperature is 20℃-25℃; the relative humidity is 20-40%.