2018 is about to pass, and on December 21, Science announced the top ten scientific breakthroughs in 2018. Take a look and light up these new milestones in the history of science:
Spying on the mysteries of cell reproduction
Through systematic studies of three techniques, scientists have discovered the complete process and specific details of the propagation from a single cell to multiple cells to the entire organization and life. They isolated thousands of intact cells from their living bodies, tested the gene expression material, and reconstructed the relationship between cells in time and space by computer or cell labeling. This series of technologies will change the cell research of the next decade.
Discovering Outer Space Messenger - Neutrino
The “Ice Cube” Antarctic Observatory, a detector buried beneath the Antarctic Glacier, successfully detected the rare iconic blue “Cherenkov Radiation Light” emitted by neutrinos interacting with ice and found its source. A "ray change" on the left side of Orion, 4 million light-years away, is a special type of galaxies containing supermassive black holes. This result will help us explore the most remote and powerful energy sources in the universe in new ways.
New tool for molecular structure analysis
X-ray crystallography is a conventional means of determining the molecular structure, but requires a large amount of high-quality crystals and often cannot be grown. Breaking through the limitations of X-ray crystallography, scientists have realized the structural analysis of small organic molecules in smaller crystals by electronic crystallography. Compared to X-rays, electrons interact more strongly with molecules in the crystal, so researchers can use very small amounts of material, and the entire resolution process takes only a few minutes!
Planets hit the earth and discover new
Scientists discovered that 13,000 years ago, the asteroid wreck hit the northwest of Greenland, creating a volcano about 31km wide, hidden under the glacier.
Sexual harassment in scientific research circles has long been unknown and ignored. Since 2018, a large number of sexual harassment incidents in the scientific research community have been exposed, and the parties have boldly stepped out and even American academicians have been expelled.
The first hybrid in human history?
Scientists who DNA-sequenced a female skeleton 90,000 years ago found that the woman had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. So far, this is the earliest hybrid found in human history.
Through public DNA data, scientists helped the US police to crack down on a series of murders in California in the 1970s and 1980s. These "golden killers" were finally arrested and brought to justice!
Gene silent drug approved
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has for the first time approved a drug patisiran for gene silencing that can help treat rare genetic diseases that cause nerve damage. This drug approval is a major change in the field of RNAi and has a profound impact on human medicine.
Peeping into the ancient world from the molecular scale
Scientists have discovered cholesterol molecules from Dickenson jellyfish fossils 558 million years ago. The cholesterol molecules that only animals have can cover up to 93% in fossils. This discovery cracked the mystery of whether Dickenson jellyfish was an animal.
Internal management of cells
It is well known that phase separation is an important way of managing cells internally. So, what makes proteins and RNA assemble and function? In 2018, scientists discovered that proteins that drive genes from DNA to RNA are aggregated and aggregated into the same droplets. At the same time, specific three-dimensional shape RNA molecules are also recognized by complementary base pairing and aggregated into the same droplet.