The laboratory is an important practice place for teaching and research in universities. Experimental furniture design plays a very important role in the design of the internal environment of the laboratory. Ergonomics takes human-machine-environment as the research object, and realizes the optimization of human-machine system performance by revealing the relationship between human-machine-environment, thereby improving the living and working environment. From the perspective of ergonomics, this paper discusses the design of laboratory furniture, that is, the full use of ergonomic principles in laboratory furniture design, to meet the ergonomic needs of users, so that the experimenter feels convenient, comfortable and light when operating the experiment. Light and happy.
Ergonomics originated in Europe and America, also known as "ergonomics." The International Ergonomics Society defines ergonomics as: “Research on the anatomy, physiology, psychology, etc. of the person in the work environment, and study the interaction of the various components of the system (efficiency, health, safety, comfort). Etc.) Study the disciplines of how to achieve human-machine-environment optimization in work and at home, in a vacation environment. In the laboratory, experimenters, equipment, laboratory furniture, and laboratory internal environment. The factors constitute the laboratory human environment system. Ergonomics uses human physiology, psychometrics and measurement methods to study the human body structure, function, psychology, mechanics and other factors of the laboratory operators to meet the needs of people's physical and mental activities, and to achieve the best use efficiency.
2 Problems in current laboratory furniture design
Nowadays, the furniture design of many laboratories does not meet the needs of the human body, which brings a lot of inconvenience to the experimental operation. For example, some bench tops are unreasonably high in height, causing neck and shoulder discomfort if they are too high, and causing the back to lean forward too low. Some of the bench tops are not wide enough, and the arm operating space is too small, causing fatigue and soreness in the muscles of the shoulders and elbows. Some experimental consoles have unreasonable space design, and the division of experimental instruments and experimental materials is not clear. The equipment and equipment are placed in disorder, which is easy to cause visual fatigue and cause misoperation. Some experimental chairs do not meet the needs of the human body, and long-term sedentary experiments are easy to backache.
3 Specific application of ergonomics in experimental furniture design
3.1 Bench design
Ergonomics-based experimental bench design, people-oriented, comprehensive consideration of ergonomics, interior design, operator interface design and other theories to design and transform the experimental platform, providing a comfortable operating environment, excellent visual effects and a pleasant operating platform for the experimenter. . On the basis of ensuring the experimental requirements, the experimental platform is designed to meet the experimental performance and meet the needs of human machines.
3.1.1 Space design of the test bench
In general, the ideal bench top height is generally around 70cm, which is the right sitting posture for comfortable use. The design of the test bench should take into account the factors such as the size of the test bench, the placement and arrangement of the instrument and the experimental materials, and the comfort of the person. Since the experiment is used for a long time, it is required that the design of the test bench should leave sufficient space for the experimental operator to avoid fatigue caused by maintaining a fixed posture for a long time. The height of the test bench should be slightly higher than the height of the user's sitting elbow. The width should be larger than the width between the two elbows of the user. It should also leave enough space for the legs to facilitate the access of the seat, and avoid the long-term bending and fatigue. Discomfort.
3.1.2 Test bench operation panel design
The traditional experimental table operation panel design is cumbersome, the layout is messy, it is easy to cause people's irritability, and there are security risks. Reasonable design of the operation panel of the experimental platform should pay attention to the interaction design of the human body interface. Based on the principle of operation accuracy and operation speed, the experimenter performs detailed information control operation on the operation panel, requiring the relevant control buttons and control components to be placed reasonably. Whether it is the size or position of the control device, it should be in an accurate and comfortable state when observing and conducting experiments. The design positioning of the operation panel should be determined according to the operation requirements and appearance of the equipment. For example, the panel of the instrument should adopt a dark color without reflection, the layout is reasonable and easy to remember, and the hardware control button rotates and presses conveniently and comfortably. The field of view of the test bench is clear, ensuring that the main operational objects of the experiment are within the optimal field of view, and the tactile, auditory and visual synergistic feedback. In addition to the basic use functions, it should also pay attention to the aesthetic needs, the operation panel is generous and beautiful, straightforward, easy to operate, and the guiding function is clear, which makes the experiment operation smooth and easy, thus improving the efficiency of the experiment.
3.2 Experimental seat design
The traditional experimental seat style is simple, the seat surface is too hard, neglecting the human body consideration, and it takes a long time to sit and feel uncomfortable. Based on ergonomic considerations, the design of the experimental seat must be based on anthropometry, the physiological form of the human body posture and the body pressure distribution, and designed according to human body size standards. When designing the structure of the experimental seat, it should be matched with various operating standards and requirements during the experiment as much as possible, so that the operator can easily maintain the stability of the body during the experiment, and the operation is accurate and effective. The inclination angle of the seat back will greatly affect the comfort of the human body. The seat cushion and the backrest should be designed to conform to the physiological curve of the human body as much as possible, so that the spine is in a normal physiological position. The seat height and lumbar height of the experimental seat are preferably designed to be adjustable and adjusted at any time according to experimental needs. The waist should have sufficient elasticity and rigidity. In general, when the waist is subjected to a horizontal force of 250 N, the lumbar tilt angle cannot exceed 115 degrees. The bare parts on the outside of the seat should be smooth, the cushions should be soft and moderate, and the height should be suitable for the operator to use.
3.3 Laboratory cabinet design
Due to the diversification of instruments and equipment, it is easy to be disordered and disordered, resulting in safety hazards. According to the appearance and shape characteristics of the test cabinet, the overall shape of the laboratory cabinet can be divided into cabinet parts, door frames, internal structures, roofs, handles and other appearance parts. The visual sense and operation purpose of each appearance part are different. Based on ergonomic considerations, the main interface of the laboratory cabinet is divided according to the performance. The following principles should be followed when designing the partition: in accordance with the specific functions and uses of the test cabinet, the need to meet the form of expression, that is, the similarity and correlation between shape and shape, and the balance and coordination of the area, Structural and performance limitations, but also to meet the aesthetic needs of users. Commonly used design division methods include: divisional division, mathematical grade division, multiple division, free division and so on. Among them, free segmentation is the most widely used. Free segmentation comprehensively considers various segmentation methods, and uses the principles of symmetry and balance, rhythm and rhythm in the aesthetic law to design segmentation based on personal intuition. The common factors in the division include the similarity of the figure, the closeness and gradation of the ratio, and the parallel and vertical of the diagonal, and pursue unity and coordination. The design of the laboratory cabinet should also fully consider the physiological needs of the experimenter to meet the physiological characteristics of the human body. The design and division of the space inside the cabinet should focus on the range of activities that the human body can touch, and consider the comfort level of the person using the touch, and facilitate the pick-and-place and sorting. The design of the laboratory cabinet is mainly curved, keeping it smooth and stable, ensuring the safety of the user.
3.4 Color design of experimental furniture
The color composition is based on the color science, and the color matching method that conforms to people's perception and psychological principles is studied. Color design plays an important role in the design of furniture. According to the professional characteristics of the laboratory, the color design of the furniture generally pays attention to the uniformity of color purity and the overall coordination of the laboratory. The color matching with light and comfortable and fresh atmosphere is the most common. The most common method of furniture color design is the main and auxiliary color matching method. The main body of the experimental furniture can choose low-purity and large-area color as the main color. The experimental table control panel, experimental seat decoration line, laboratory cabinet handle and other elements can be used. High-purity, bright colors for auxiliary color matching. Complementary color matching and monochromatic methods are sometimes used. The color is subtle and warm, reflecting the functional characteristics of the experimental furniture and making the operator feel comfortable and happy.
In summary, the design of experimental furniture should be people-oriented, fully apply the principles of ergonomics, respect the physiological and psychological needs of experimental operators, provide them with scientific convenience, comfortable and pleasant experimental furniture, improve and optimize the internal environment of the laboratory, In addition, the experimental accuracy rate and the experimental innovation rate are improved, so as to obtain better teaching and scientific research results.