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How to build planning and operational requirements in the hospital laboratory

Sep 25, 2018

The laboratory is one of the most important medical technology departments in the hospital. It should be equipped with biochemical, immunological, microbiological, outpatient, clinical blood, body fluid, PCR and other laboratories. It should undertake the routine laboratory testing of clinical specimens and the central laboratory testing of clinical drug verification. jobs. Mainly carry out hepatitis A, B, C, D, E hepatitis, AIDS, measles, rubella, Japanese encephalitis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, bacillary dysentery, syphilis, malaria, typhoid and paratyphoid, cholera and other contagious Laboratory pathogen detection of the disease.



The laboratory of the Infectious Diseases Hospital is basically the same as the general hospital in terms of professional setting and division. The difference is that, except for the inspection items that are carried out, most of the workers are exposed to pathogenic microorganisms and have infections. Sex patient specimens.



Workers may be threatened by potentially pathogenic microbial infections every day. If pathogenic microorganisms are leaked from the laboratory, they may cause disease transmission or epidemics in the laboratory and its surroundings, and even wider. Therefore, strengthen the clinical practice of infectious diseases hospitals. The biosafety protection of the laboratory is very important. It is both the need for hospital infection control and the need for prevention and control of infectious diseases.

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The laboratory of the laboratory divides the effective space into clean areas (offices, lounges, study rooms), buffer zones (storage areas, supply areas) and contaminated areas (work areas, washing areas, specimen storage areas, autoclaves). The PCR laboratory is divided into 1 reagent storage and preparation area according to the requirements of the Ministry of Health's “Interim Measures for the Management of Clinical Amplification and Testing Laboratories”; 2 specimen preparation area; 3 amplification product analysis area. The strict division of this work area largely avoids cross-contamination of pathogens and provides a strong guarantee for the safety of workers and the safety of the surrounding environment.



The laboratory of the clinical medical institution is a biosafety secondary laboratory. According to the requirements of the biosafety secondary laboratory, a Class II biosafety cabinet and an autoclave approved by the national FDA and in compliance with national standards shall be equipped and inspected on schedule. And verification to ensure compliance. In addition, the laboratory should be equipped with eyewash and emergency sprinklers.



    Personal protective equipment is a barrier to reduce the risk of exposure to aerosols, spills, and accidental inoculation. Any personal protective equipment used in the laboratory shall comply with the requirements of relevant national standards. Based on the laboratory hazard assessment, select appropriate personal protective equipment according to its protective requirements.



    The daily personal protective equipment that the hospital must provide for the laboratory staff mainly includes overalls (white coats), gowns, work shoes, hats, disposable surgical masks, and disposable plastic gloves. When handling specimens that may contain highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms or specimens from patients with severe respiratory infections, workers should use N95 masks and protective glasses to strengthen protection. The laboratory is also equipped with a respirator and first aid. Devices such as boxes are used in emergency situations.



 Laboratory operating specifications mainly include: specimen delivery specifications, serum separation operation specifications, specimen operation specifications, infectious substance operation specifications, biosafety equipment operation specifications, disinfection and sterilization operation specifications, blood, body fluids and secretions operation specifications, experiments Room waste disposal specifications and so on.



In infectious disease hospitals, because patients are mostly infected with infectious diseases, their blood, body fluids or other samples may contain infectious pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, in the collection, transportation, operation and autoclaving of samples, in addition to personal protection, the corresponding operational specifications must be strictly implemented. For example, the container from which the specimen is selected may be glass, but it is preferred to use a plastic article. The specimen container should be sturdy and should be leak-free after being properly covered with a lid or stopper. It is recommended to use a qualified vacuum blood collection tube to collect blood; the specimen should be transported by trained personnel. To avoid accidental leakage or spillage, the box should be used. A secondary container that can be autoclaved or resistant to chemical disinfectants and secured to a shelf to keep the container containing the specimen upright.



If the laboratory receives a large number of specimens, it is necessary to arrange a special room or space. The opening of the inner container of the specimen and the separation of the serum should be carried out in the biological safety cabinet, and the disinfectant should be prepared; the first and second classes are transported. The pathogenic microbial (poison) species or samples shall be transported in accordance with the Ministry of Health's Regulations on the Management of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms (Poisons) or Samples for Infecting Humans; Tools (including needles, knives, metals and glass) It should be disposed of directly in a single-use sharps box. All discarded laboratory waste samples, cultures, and contaminated waste must be autoclaved before being transported away by specially qualified personnel.